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Thursday, June 14, 2012

HARDWARE COMPONENTS

                       Here i will explain what are the hardware components present in personal computer.

Central Processing Unit (CPU), Monitor, Keyboard, Mouse, Speakers, Uninterrupted Power Supply (UPS), Printer, Scanner. Let us know by part by part


CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU):

                It is the heart of the PC which contains motherboard, RAM (Random Access Memory), SMPS (Switch Mode Power Supply), DVD-ROM or BD-ROM, Hard-disk, C Mos battery, Video card (Graphic Card) & Processor.




Motherboard: 


            The figure shows Motherboard. The shape and size of motherboard (MOBO) varies day by day...Now-a-Days the compactness of motherboard becoming very small. This mother board holds the various components like RAM, Processor, Video card. The basic inputs and outputs given to PC is through MOBO only. All the components should be connected to the MOBO. Every MOBO contains some non-volatile (Not erasable) memory named BIOS memory which contains the program to load the operating system. BIOS means Basic Input Output System. There are several companies which made the MOBOs. Intel MOBO are best and efficient MOBO's. While dealing with MOBO there are several chipsets. Chipset means its a collection of chips printed in a board. This chipset speed also determines the how much speed your PC will work. For more info click on the below link.


RAM (Random Access Memory):
                 RAM the name indicates that Accessing capability of memory from other devices like hard-disk or other input/output (I/O) devices or from a network. It contains IC's. There are two types of RAM viz., SRAM (Static RAM), DRAM (Dynamic RAM). Now-a-days all use SDRAM (Synchronous Dynamic RAM). SDRAM's are sub-categorized into many RAMs like DDR, DDR2, DDR3 SDRAM's. DDR means Double Data Rate. Here i will show the pictures of above mentioned RAMs.
                 Now-a-days..memory of the RAM chip varies from 128MB to 8 or 10 GB. The type of RAM chip depends on the type of chipset (motherboard).

Switch Mode Power Supply (SMPS):
               SMPS is a collection of ICs, transistors, resistors. This will provide the power supply various components present in CPU, Monitor, Keyboard, Mouse. The name indicates that switching the input power i.e. 240v to different voltages. The main requirement of different voltages is mother board requires various voltages & BD-ROM, Harddisk requires different voltages...So it will switches the input voltages to various voltages. This SMPS kit or box is present inside the CPU. In Laptops it will integrated in mother board. In laptops the charger which you are connecting will gives output voltage of 19.5v. This voltage is switched within the circuit integrated in motherboard.

DVD-ROM or BD-ROM:
               This is the device which facilitates external memory to PC. DVD-ROM will reads or writes the DVD discs while the BD-ROM will reads or writes the Blue-ray Discs. Now-a-days.. the latest technology is using BD-ROMs in PC, laptops. In palmtops, tablets this type of ROMs are absent which are replaced by USB or flash drives. 
                 If the drive is unable to open means..just do one thing...beside the open/close button, a small hole is present. Take a needle and insert it. The drive will opens automatically

Hard-disk:
                 This is the internal memory present in the PC. Which contains memory chips. The memory size will varies from 4GB to 2 or 5 TB (1TB=1024GB). The total memory size of the chip is partitioned (split) into some drives of custom sizes. you can do any number of partitions. Operating system (which will discussed later posts) is installed in primary partitions. In a hard disk there are two types of memories viz., primary and logical memories. This hard-disk can be connected internally or externally to a PC. In laptops if you want to extend the internal memory of your harddisk it is not possible. So externally we can connect a harddisk through USB(Universal Serial Bus) ports.

C-mos battery:
                  
                   
                    This battery is very important in any PC. Without this battery, PC wont work or operate. This battery enables the loading of BIOS settings of the PC. Sometimes, when you switch on the PC it will show some error like "checksum bios settings error" or errors based on BIOS. At that time, you just replace the battery with new one. Then the problem will be sollved.

Video Card:
                   This is Graphic card which is optional in PC. This card will provides in playing high resolution videos, Games etc... For Gaming PC's its mandatory of this card. This card is just like a Video-RAM contains memory. Which performs accessing the memory from the hard-disk to monitor. In Desktop computers if it contains the video card, then you have to connect the monitor cable to this port only. Now-a-days this video card is integrated in processor. This video card memory size varies from 256MB to 2 or 4 GB.

Processor:
                   Its just like a heart in the human body. This is IC. Processor name indicates that processing the instructions. All the operations performed in PC are in digital in nature. i.e. which contains 1's or 0's. So PC understood this 1's & 0's only. This 1's & 0's language is called machine language. Every instruction in PC first wants to convert it into machine language then it is executed. The Execution of instructions was done by processor only. There are several types of processors available now in market. Latest processor upto now is Intel core i7.

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